He was known as the puer Apuliae son of Apulia. Frederick was baptised in Assisi. At the death of his father inFrederick was in Italy, traveling towards Germany, when the bad news reached his guardian, Conrad of Spoleto. Frederick was hastily brought back to his mother Constance in Palermo, Sicily, where he was crowned king on 17 Mayat just three years of age.
Please don't forget our school! Saint Clementwhose feast is today! Shop local, or by from reputable online places that pay treat their employees well!
He reigned from AD until his death in Setting the Stage for Greatness Two things are necessary when trying to understand the greatness of any one of our popes. First, we need to know the major principles that guided his decisions and actions. Second, we must have some sense of the events that preceded his ascent to the papal throne as well as the political and social forces that were prevalent during the time of his papacy.
Who am I and of what lineage that I should take my place above kings? Peter is the Vicar of Christ; he has been established as mediator between God and man, below God but beyond man; less than God but more than man; who shall judge all and be judged by no one.
From his other writings it is clear that Innocent III understood the preeminence of the spiritual over the temporal, including the predominance of the Church over the State.
Pondering this truth, thou, as a secular prince, has subjected thy realm to Him to whom all is spiritually subject. His writings show that he had a profound knowledge of scholastic philosophy as well as canon and civil law.
According to all accounts, Lotario lived in conformity to his ideals and, throughout his life, his actions both private and public were pure and above reproach. To him, the most heinous crimes were those that opposed, denied or subverted the Catholic Faith, outside of which no one at all could be saved.
Thus, it was imperative that worldly and grasping kings should be controlled, that the Holy Land should be freed from the diabolical yoke of Islam and that the immoral actions of secular leaders, the clergy, and even entire populations should be censured and punished.
Before we get too far into our subject, it is important for the reader to understand that, in the Middle Ages, it was universally accepted that to wield power, it was necessary to be a landowner 1. Due to his obvious brilliance and excellent qualities of character, Lotario was made canon of St.
He knew that theoretical knowledge and purity of life, as excellent as those qualities are, are inadequate when charged with carrying out the responsibilities and duties of the Vicar of Christ in a fallen world.
The Conditions Prior to the Election of Innocent III While it is true that what we call Western Civilization was Catholic in the Middle Ages, it is also true that, then as now, men sought wealth and power inordinately and that they chafed at anything or anyone that interfered with their disordered desires.
Depending on the ability and holiness of the reigning Pope, rulers and populations grew in or strayed from the Faith in their personal lives and ambitions.
Without firm guidance from the Church, leaders became tyrants and countries allowed heresies to flourish and disorder to prevail. Internal strife, heretical notions, and rivalries between various Christian sovereigns had allowed the Muslims to advance quickly to a degree that would imperil the whole of the West.
Bernard, fought against the forces of an anti-pope, Anacletus II. It was only after St. Bernard preached a crusade against the anti-pope during which Anacletus suddenly died that the legitimate papacy was restored.
Although the legitimate successor of Peter now reigned, the supporters of Anacletus still fomented discontent.
Rome was torn apart by factions. The Third Lateran Council was summoned inwhich anathematized those who supported the schism and confirmed the laws relative to simony, clerical incontinence and luxury.
After the council, revolutionary forces still remained very active in Rome. Eugene was unable to return to Rome until The problems in the Holy Land rivaled those in Rome.
The Muslims now surrounded the Christian states of the East. The Third Crusade was preached by St Bernard in Despite an enthusiastic response, the disunion of the Christian princes, the hostility of the Greek Emperor, and the ferocity of the Muslim forces resulted in defeat for the Crusaders.
Bernard understood the lesson from the setback and declared that the success of Christian arms in the East was intimately connected with the moral and religious reform in the West. His ambitions knew no bounds as he wanted nothing less than absolute power, like that of the ancient Roman emperors.
He was cruel and perfidious. Finally, inby the Treaty of Venice, Frederick I recognized the legitimate authority of Alexander III and promised to place back into their sees all bishops who had been removed because of their loyalty to the legitimate pope.
Although, during that period, Frederick I was the most vigorous and problematic of the foes of the papacy, there were others such as Henry II of England who was responsible for the murder of St. Almost immediately, Henry displayed his perfidy and attempted to realize the ambitions of his father — German control of the entire Western world.
His means were even more barbarous.On Innocent’s political relations with the Emperor, see J.M. Powell, “Frederick II and the Church: A Revisionist View,” Catholic Historical Review, – (). Among the general histories that have best elaborated the period and the work of Innocent IV is A.
Fliche and V. Martin. Frederick II (–) Holy Roman Emperor (–50), king of Germany (–20), Sicily (–) and Jerusalem (–50); son of Emperor Henry . Innocent IV - Legacy - The struggle against Frederick II brings to light a striking characteristic of Innocent’s pontificate and of the period as a whole.
A close relationship existed between the political activity and the personal and family fortunes of the Pope and the cardinals. When the news reached Rome, Pope Innocent IV was delighted.
‘Let heaven exult and the earth rejoice,’ he proclaimed in a message to the Sicilian bishops and . Frederick II (26 December – 13 December ; Sicilian: Fidiricu, Italian: Federico, Latin: Federicus, German: Friedrich) was King of Sicily from , King of Germany from , King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from and King of Jerusalem from Mother: Constance, Queen of Sicily.
The bitter rivalry between Fredrick II and Innocent IV caused them to disagree with anything that concerned either of them. Each party tried to debase the other through words and actions.
Innocent IV - Legacy - The struggle against Frederick II brings to light a striking characteristic of Innocent’s pontificate and of the period as a whole. A close relationship existed between the political activity and the personal and family fortunes of the Pope and the cardinals. In Otto IV was defeated at Bouvines by Frederick's ally King Philip II (Augustus) of France, and in Frederick was recognized as emperor-elect by Pope Innocent III, who died a little while later. The election () of an antiking to Conrad IV, Frederick's younger son, plunged Germany into civil war. The war in Italy turned in Frederick's favor in , but in December he died of dysentery. Character and Legacy Frederick II was one of the most arresting figures of the Middle Ages.
In reaction to Fredrick IIs deposition by Innocent IV, the banter between the two became increasingly m.