An analysis of the pressures of drug in sports

Crisps What types of carbohydrates are there? There are two types of carbohydrates - starchy complex carbohydrates and simple sugars. The simple sugars are found in confectionery, muesli bars, cakes and biscuits, cereals, puddings, soft drinks and juices and jam and honey but they also contain fat.

An analysis of the pressures of drug in sports

Athletes who use anabolic steroids claim that as well as increasing muscle mass, they reduce body fat and recovery time after injury. But the androgenic masculinising side-effects—such as increased body hair and a deepening of the voice—are not always desirable, particularly in women.

To counteract these side-effects, scientists developed steroids that retain their anabolic effects but have a lower androgenic effect.

An analysis of the pressures of drug in sports

Examples of use Androstenedione was used by East German Olympic swimmers and other athletes in the s and s to improve their performances.

Health risks Medical experts see significant dangers in the use—and particularly the gross over-use—of anabolic steroids.

Some of the effects are minor or only last while the drug is being taken; others are more serious and long-term. For example, anabolic steroids can cause high blood pressure, acne, abnormalities in liver function, alterations in the menstrual cycle in women, decline in sperm production and impotence in men, kidney failure and heart disease.

They can also make both men and women more aggressive. The same non-radioactive substance in the blood takes the place of the isotope in the antibodies, thus leaving the radioactive substance free. The amount of free isotope is then measured to see how much of the original substance was in the blood.

Today, anabolic steroids and their by-products can generally be detected quite easily in urine, using mass spectrometry. Testosterone and a related compound, epitestosterone, are eliminated from the body in urine. There are problems with this test. Today, anti-doping labs use the combined technique of Gas Chromatography GLOSSARY Chromatographya technique for the separation of a mixture by passing it in solution or suspension through a medium in which the components move at different rates.

This is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample, effectively detecting differences in the ratio of carbon isotopes in different compounds.

This technology can distinguish between testosterone produced naturally by the body endogenous and that which is a result of synthetic compounds exogenous. Continuing advancements in the detection of steroids and stimulants are currently being developed.

S, a research team is working on a detection system that is being touted as a fold improvement on the commonly used mass spectronomy technique. The new technique, named Paired Ion Electrospray Ionisation PIESI makes traces of steroids or amphetamines more visible to current detection equipment by introducing a chemical agent which effectively binds itself to the traces, right down to the parts per trillion.

To develop reliable tests, researchers have to know what they are looking for. The World Anti-Doping Agency is aware of the problem. In they were able to develop a test for one of these designer steroids—tetrahydrogestrinone THG —when a syringe full of the drug was given to them.

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Search and browse our historical collection to find news, notices of births, marriages and deaths, sports, comics, and much more. The literature is relatively limited in regard to injury in specific Paralympic sports with few longitudinal studies.

Notwithstanding this there are .

Aspetar Sports Medicine Journal - Why do athletes take drugs?