Ritsurin Garden Garden architecture is as important as building architecture and very much influenced by the same historical and religious background. A primary design principle of a garden is the creation of the landscape based on, or at least greatly influenced by, the three-dimensional monochrome ink sumi landscape painting, sumi-e or suibokuga. In Japan, the garden has the status of artwork. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
During the Yayoi period ca. The basic genetic stock of the population and the fundamental patterns of the language were established during that period. Japan came to the attention of China in the fourth century. During the Yamato period C.
Inemissaries from the Korean kingdom of Paekche established contact with the Yamato rulers. They introduced Buddhism and thus brought Japan into systematic contact with Chinese civilization. Almost every aspect of Japanese life—agricultural technology, written language, philosophy, architecture, poetry, medicine, and law—was transformed.
The Yamato state adopted the conventions of the Chinese imperial court and tried to model society along the lines of Chinese civilization. The Tale of Genji, the world's first novel, epitomizes the culture of the Heian period.
By the end of the Heian period, economic, social, and military power had shifted to provincial landholders and warriors.
Several successive hereditary dynasties occupied this position until The medieval period ended in a century of civil war lasting from the late fifteenth to the late sixteenth century. Contacts with the West began in the mid-sixteenth century with the arrival of the Portuguese Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier.
The introduction of Western weaponry hastened the consolidation of power among a few increasingly dominant warlords who unified the country and ended the civil war.
In Tokugawa Ieyasu decisively defeated most of the remaining opponents, and established a dynasty that lasted until For over years, Japan experienced political stability, peace, and rising prosperity.
The Tokugawa regime ruled through a complicated network of alliances with approximately regional lords, some closely allied to the Tokugawa and others in opposition but permanently subdued. Each fief retained its own castle town, and as a political strategy, some fiefs maintained a high degree of economic, social, and cultural autonomy.
During the Tokugawa period, culture and society became codified and somewhat uniform across the country. Patterns established during this period shaped, propelled, and constrained the country's modernization after By the s, the Tokugawa regime had ruthlessly suppressed Christian communities and broken off most ties with European nations.
It disarmed the peasantry and imposed rigid household registration requirements to keep the population spatially and socially immobile. Traffic along the great highways was scrutinized at heavily guarded checkpoints. Trade was controlled through feudal guilds, and detailed sumptuary regulations governed the lives of all social classes.
These social policies reflected the ideology of neo-Confucianism, which valued social stability and the social morality of ascribed status. Tokugawa social structure was organized around principles of hierarchy, centralized authority, and collective responsibility.
Individuals were expected to subordinate themselves to the specific obligations of their ascribed social roles, and virtue consisted of perfecting one's ability to fit the requirements of one's role.
In the upper reaches of society, the kinship system upheld neo-Confucian ideals of the family as a microcosm of the social order. Neo-Confucianism also established a rigid system of ranked social classes: Status reflected ideals of social utility, not wealth.
Beyond those four hereditary official classes, Tokugawa society included a tiny stratum of imperial nobility, a large clerical establishment, and a population of outcastes.
Throughout this period, regional castle towns and the major urban centers under the direct control of the Tokugawa authorities became increasingly integrated into a national economic, social, and cultural network. Urban economic power increased over the agrarian sectors. This undermined Tokugawa political power, which depended on the control of agricultural land and taxes.
In the cities, bourgeois culture flourished: Only about 15 percent of Japan is level enough for agriculture. Japanese cities equaled or surpassed their European counterparts in infrastructure and public amenities, but Japanese urbanites lacked a political voice commensurate with their economic and cultural capital.
Tokugawa social patterns and institutions laid the foundations for modernization.
The urban merchant classes stimulated the development of sophisticated national economic institutions and the beginning of industrial production. Literacy and computational ability were widespread among samurai, merchants, and the upper levels of the peasantry.
The samurai became a hereditary class of bureaucrats whose qualifications for leadership depended on education. Society was characterized by discipline and regulation. The Tokugawa dynasty surrendered its authority to the imperial court in after a long struggle. The political crisis included major internal economic problems and the unexpected confrontation with the Western powers precipitated by the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry and a squadron of American warships in Culture of Japan - history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, family, social, marriage Ja-Ma.
Toggle navigation. stylized versions of written Chinese remained a hallmark of elite culture. The introduction of Chinese characters 1, years ago established semantic and orthographic systems that make Japanese one of the most. Introduction to Japanese History: Geography A satellite image of Japan Japan today is a modern democracy and economy comparable to the European and USA model of politico-economics.
Today, Japanese culture outside Japan can be seen in almost all countries in the world, with major pronouncements in United States, Europe, China, Korea, Canada, Palau, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Taiwan, and Australia.
Introduction to Japanese Culture is wonderfully informative, a needed primer on the cultural make-up and behaviors of the Japanese.
This book is certain to fascinate the student, tourist, or anyone who seeks to know and understand Japanese culture, Japanese etiquette, and the history of Japan/5(19). The culture of Japan has evolved greatly over the millennia, from the country's prehistoric time Jōmon period, to its contemporary modern culture, which absorbs influences from Asia, Europe, and North America.
Strong Chinese influences are still evident in traditional Japanese culture as China had historically been a regional powerhouse, which. The Yayoi period also saw the introduction of weaving and silk production, glassmaking and new "The Pacific War," in The Cambridge History of Japan: Volume 6.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Deal, William E (). Japan: Its History and Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill. Neary, Ian ().