Criticisms Faced by Hawthorne Experiments! Though Hawthorne experiments have opened a new chapter in management by emphasizing the importance of social factors in output, it is not without fault. The experiments have been widely criticized by some behavioural scientists because of lack of scientific objectivity used in arriving at various conclusions.
Background During the early part of the century, American businesses were swept by Scientific Management, a school of thought largely developed by Frederick Taylor.
He pioneered the use of time and motion studies, in which management would carefully break down tasks into simple chunks, then work out the best way for a worker to execute the chunks all the way down to how long a step to take, how often to break, how much water to drink, etc.
The worker then executed their jobs exactly as they were told, like automatons. As part of the Scientific Management regime, companies routinely studied the effects of the physical environment on their workers.
For example, they varied the lighting to find the optimum level of light for maximum productivity. They piped in music, varied the temperature, tried different compensation schemes, adjusted the number of working hours in a day, etc.
Initially, the study focused on lighting. Two things emerged from the initial studies: The experimenter effect was that making changes was interpreted by workers as a sign that management cared, and more generally, it was just provided some mental stimulation that was good for morale and productivity.
The social effect was that it seemed that by being separated from the rest and being given special treatment, the experimentees developed a certain bond and camaraderie that also increased productivity. The second phase of the study, the Bank Wiring Room, was designed to study the social effects.
Basically they put some workers in a special room, and placed an observer full time in the room to record everything that happened. The kind of work done was assembling telephone switching equipment. The process was broken down into three tasks: The first few days, the workers would not talk openly in front of the observer.
It took three weeks for normal behavior to resume. This included talking, fighting, playing games, binging, teasing, job trading, helping, etc.
Physical Layout of the Bank Wiring Room.Evaluate the Contribution of the Hawthorne Studies to the Development of Management Theory and Practice. Words Oct 9th, 7 Pages Hawthorne Studies have been subjected to many criticisms.
Fifty years of controversy have established the Hawthorne Experiments as industrial sociology's most durable legend and Elton Mayo as one of its most enigmatic figures. The precise part played by Mayo has been the subject of widely different interpretations both favourable and unfavourable.
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content. TeresaA. Goddu Integrating Hawthorne I want to begin with a query that those of us who work in “race studies”might usefully pose: why is it that Poe, not Hawthorne, has become the figure through whom antebellum American literature is reread in terms of race and slavery?
Though Hawthorne experiments have opened a new chapter in management by emphasizing the importance of social factors in output, it is not without fault.
The experiments have been widely criticized by some behavioural scientists because of lack of scientific .
However the Hawthorne experiments may suggest that motivation is more complicated than that. Advocates of the "Hawthorne Effect" will state that the Hawthorne experiment results show that motivation can be improved through improving working relationships and social interraction.
Harvard Business School’s role in the experiments represented a milestone in the dawn of the human relations movement and a shift in the study of management from a scientific to a .