History[ edit ] Ancient and medieval[ edit ] The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization.
People need safely surrounding for happy living and it is the duty of the state to provide their safety.
A lot of attempts are made in order to find new ways of dealing with the growing crime rate. Correctional policies are designed in order to punish lawbreakers and prevent new crimes.
Using differentiated approach when dealing with different types of crime can bring good results as it takes into account all peculiarities of each separate crime category. Despite there is a trend to modern society aiming to limit the use of imprisonment as correctional policy it stays one of the most effective and most widespread policies.
Scientists provide a lot of theories trying to explain the origins and reasons of criminal behavior. Most of the theories turn to the ideas of inequality and trying poor people to get some compensation for their lower status and lack of possibilities in life.
Despite these theories put all the guilt for the crimes committed on the society, it still serves the additional proof that only retributional policies can bring necessary result.
Rational arguments will not work with people, who feel social injustice. That is why preventive measures are not very likely to be effective in this case. At the same time there is a big hope that imprisonment can become a combination of preventive and punishing measure as it serves as a punishment to actual criminals and reminds about potential retribution to the potential ones.
There are four different theories on crime and punishment, which assume the use of different correctional policies. Justice theory is based on the Judeo-Christian idea of paying a debt for the crime committed.
Idea of retribution is widely accepted in this system. Such a theory assumes that those who commit crimes will be punished and victim will feel better knowing about this.
Second theory of the correctional policy is based on the principle of deterrence. This protection is provided by putting prisoners in prisons.
The fourth theory is based on the principle of rehabilitation. It states that society is responsible for the criminal behaviour of individuals and, thus owns them rehabilitation in order to help them to come back to normal life. If we study carefully all four approaches to correctional policy we will notice that not all of them are applicable in modern context.
Judaeo-Christian philosophy of justice has some fallacies.
First of all, it can be applied only in the cases when people believe in Judea-Christian moral and ethical norms and regulations. In this case they will perceive an idea of just punishment. In addition, it is not possible to count on this type of justice in all cases. Rehabilitation theory can work well for those, who have already committed crime.
At the same time it can not prevent from the committing of new crimes as potential criminals and lawbreakers will not be afraid of future punishment.Course Overview.
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- Imprisonment is one of the primary ways in which social control may be achieved; the Sage Dictionary of Criminology defines social control as a concept used to describe all the ways in which conformity may be achieved. Formal means that of social control are the means that of social control exercised by the government and different organizations that use enforcement mechanisms and sanctions like fines and imprisonment to enact social control.
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Visions of Social Control is a wide ranging analysis of recentshifts in ideas and practices for dealing with crime anddelinquency.
In Great Britain.