Data storage device Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tapea long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic druminvented in  and used in the Ferranti Mark 1the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer.
Questioning In groups, the idea is to generate lots of questions about the topic. This helps students focus upon audience as they consider what the reader needs to know. The answers to these questions will form the basis to the composition.
Discussion and debate The teacher helps students with topics, helping them develop ideas in a positive and encouraging way. Focusing ideas Fast writing The students write quickly on a topic for five to ten minutes without worrying about correct language or punctuation.
Writing as quickly as possible, if they cannot think of a word they leave a space or write it in their own language. The important thing is to keep writing. Later this text is revised.
Group compositions Working together in groups, sharing ideas. This collaborative writing is especially valuable as it involves other skills speaking in particular. Changing viewpoints A good writing activity to follow a role-play or storytelling activity. Varying form Similar to the activity above, but instead of different viewpoints, different text types are selected.
How would the text be different if it were written as a letter, or a newspaper article, etc. Evaluating, Structuring and Editing Ordering Students take the notes written in one of the pre-writing activities above and organise them. What would come first?
Here it is good to tell them to start with information known to the reader before moving onto what the reader does not know. Self-editing A good writer must learn how to evaluate their own language - to improve through checking their own text, looking for errors, structure.
This way students will become better writers. Peer editing and proof-reading Here, the texts are interchanged and the evaluation is done by other students.
In the real world, it is common for writers to ask friends and colleagues to check texts for spelling, etc. You could also ask the students to reduce the texts, to edit them, concentrating on the most important information.
The importance of feedback It takes a lot of time and effort to write, and so it is only fair that student writing is responded to suitably.
Positive comments can help build student confidence and create good feeling for the next writing class. It also helps if the reader is more than just the teacher. Class magazines, swapping letters with other classes, etc.
Writing as communication Process writing is a move away from students writing to test their language towards the communication of ideas, feelings and experiences. It requires that more classroom time is spent on writing, but as the previously outlined activities show, there is more than just writing happening during a session dedicated to process writing.
Potential problems Writing is a complex process and can lead to learner frustration.
As with speaking, it is necessary to provide a supportive environment for the students and be patient. This approach needs that more time be spent on writing in class, but as you have seen, not all classroom time is spent actually writing. Students may also react negatively to reworking the same material, but as long as the activities are varied and the objectives clear, then they will usually accept doing so.
In the long term, you and your students will start to recognise the value of a process writing approach as their written work improves.The process approach to writing instruction is one of the most popular methods for teaching writing.
The authors conducted meta-analysis of 29 experimental and quasi-experimental studies conducted with students in Grades 1–12 to examine if process writing instruction improves the quality of students’ writing and motivation to write.
The process theory of composition (hereafter referred to as "process") is a field of composition studies that focuses on writing as a process rather than a product.
The 5-Step Writing Process: From Brainstorming to Publishing. Every writer follows his or her own writing process. Often the process is a routine that comes naturally and is not a step-by-step guide to which writers refer.
It is about the Process Approach to Writing, its Theoretical Underpinnings, etc This is a presentation I prepared for our class in the Teaching of Composition.
writing, make a comparison between product and process approach to teaching writing and accordingly make suggestions about the basic principles of teaching writing with the application of the process approach.