Rheumatic heart disease — heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever caused by Streptococcus pyogenes a group A streptococcal infection. Risk factors There are many risk factors for heart diseases:
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is treatable but currently there is no known cure and it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
COPD causes reduction in airflow during the ventilation cycle due to the loss of air way elasticity, narrowing of the airways, chronic airways inflammation and over active mucous production Frace, Known risk factors for development of COPD include tobacco use including second hand smokeair pollution, dust and exposure to chemicals used in the production of coal, cotton and grain.
Nursing management for a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease begins with assessment; gathering information from the patient including detailed medical history, present symptoms and evaluate findings of diagnostic tests. Symptoms vary with each patient, but may include chronic cough, clubbing of the fingers, chest tightness, weight loss, cyanosis, difficulty breathing with a higher rate of respirations and difficulty sleeping Weber, It is common for patients suffering from difficulty breathing to use their accessory muscles to promote more efficient breathing which in turn causes weakness and fatigue.
In diagnosing a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease many different test are available, including pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gas measurements, chest x-ray, high-resolution computed tomography CT chest scan and screening for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency Frace, Arterial blood gas measurements are used to monitor oxygenation levels in the lungs and gas exchange because hypoxia may result from pulmonary secretions and respiratory fatigue.
Chest x-rays are typically used to rule out any other conditions that may mimic similar symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particularly asthma which was previously classified as a form of COPD.
Common nursing diagnosis for a COPD patient include ineffective airway clearance due to thick mucus secretions, decreased ciliary function, lack of energy, bronchospasms, damage to the alveolar wall and impaired exhalation evidenced by unrelenting cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing with activity and abnormal vital signs.
Impaired gas exchange due to increased upper and lower airway resistance, over production of secretions, bronchoconstrictions, increased residual volume and loss of elasticity in lung tissue evidenced by difficulty breathing, abnormal arterial blood gas values, restlessness and confusion.
Risk for infection related to decreased ciliary function, poor nutrition, over active secretions and a impaired pulmonary defense system evidenced by elevated white blood cell count, fever, chills, increased cough and changes in sputum color and odor.
The major goals for COPD patients include achieving airway clearance, improve breathing patterns, increase nutritional intake, improves tolerance during activities, remains free of infection and discomfort and preparing patient for discharge and self-care instructions.
In achieving effective airway clearance the nurse auscultates lungs monitoring for decreased or absent lung sounds, crackles or wheezing as these signs may indicate presences of airway obstruction and resistance.
Assess for any changes in respiratory rate and depth as this could be an early sign of respiratory troubles. Assist in mobilizing secretions, by teaching the patient correct coughing techniques and keeping the patient hydrated so secretions are diluted making them easier to expel.
Encourage the patient to reduce all irritants especially tobacco smoke which affects the respiratory tracts ciliary cleansing mechanism allowing bacteria and foreign matter to obstruct the air passage way. Interventions for improving breathing patterns include teaching the patient to sit upright which is the optimal breathing position to provide room for better lung expansion and pursed-lip breathing to promote a more controlled, complete and effective exhalation.
Often the patient has used all their energy trying to breath which leaves them fatigued and unwilling to eat. Encouraging the patient to eat smaller more frequent nutritionally balanced meals containing soft moistened food will require less energy and lessen the feeling of fullness and discomfort.
Interventions to prevent infection include assessing for fever, changes in sputum, increased white blood cell count, chills, nausea, changes in breath sounds, vomiting and shortness of breath as these are all indications of possible infection.
During evaluation of the outcomes of the selected nursing interventions the patient would be free of excess secretions, have clear lungs sounds, demonstrate effective coughing techniques and express strategies to improve unhealthy life-style actions.
The patient will maintain adequate gas exchange, normal arterial blood gas levels, remain alert and orientated, responsive and have no reduction in mental status or level of consciousness. Textbook of medical-surgical nursing 12th ed. Diagnoses, prioritized interventions, rationales 11th ed.
Davis Company Frace, M. Understanding Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Med — Surg Matters, 17 4 Nursing diagnosis and intervention 6th ed. The art and science of nursing care 6th ed.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progresses over many decades and tends to present in advanced stages, thus most treated patients are middle aged or elderly.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide resulting in more than million deaths in These pulmonary function tests are designed to assess patient lung function.
Results of these tests can be used in conjunction with the COPD guidelines to develop effective treatment and management plans for patients. To prepare: Review the COPD guidelines in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease article.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progresses over many decades and tends to present in advanced stages, thus most treated patients are middle aged or elderly. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide resulting in more than million deaths in INTRODUCTION — Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory condition characterized by airflow limitation .It affects more than 5 percent of the population and is associated with high morbidity and mortality .It is the third-ranked cause of death in the United States, killing more than , individuals each year .
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with respiratory disorders often require short-term and long-term treatment.
While short-term treatments may successfully relieve a patients current symptoms, long-term treatment and management is a necessary component of the care plan. For users looking for adverse drug events, drug efficacy studies, medical device and disease-related biomedical research information, Embase delivers immediate access to a range of intuitive search tools that help them find exact answers to their research questions quickly and easily.